Adjustable-Rate Mortgage - 2/28 ARM

A type of adjustable-rate mortgage that has a two-year fixed interest rate period after which the interest rate on the mortgage begins to float based on an index plus a margin. The index plus the margin in known as the fully indexed interest rate. Often, a 2/28 ARM is designed as a short-term financing vehicle that provides borrowers with time to repair their credit before they refinance into a mortgage with more favorable terms.

In many cases, 2/28-mortgage borrowers fail to recognize the risks associated with such a mortgage. They often don't recognize how much their monthly payments will increase when the interest rate starts to adjust at a higher rate. It is important to note that there is usually a high probability that the fully indexed interest rate will be substantially higher than the initial two-year fixed interest rate. Once this number adjusts, the borrower's payments are likely to increase as well.

Adjustable-Rate Mortgage - 3/27 ARM

A type of adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) frequently offered to subprime borrowers. These mortgages are designed as short-term financing vehicles that give borrowers time to repair their credit until they are able to refinance into a mortgage with more favorable terms.

3/27 mortgages have a three-year fixed-interest-rate period after which the interest rate begins to float based on an index plus a margin (known as the fully indexed interest rate). There is a high probability that the fully indexed interest rate will be substantially higher than the initial three-year fixed interest rate; therefore, to avoid payment shock, the intent of 3/27 mortgage borrowers is to be able to refinance the mortgage before the interest rate begins to adjust.

A common mistake many 3/27 mortgage borrowers make is a failure to recognize the risks associated with such a mortgage. Many times they do not recognize how much their monthly payments may increase if the interest rate changes. Even if they plan on refinancing before the interest rate starts to move, they fail to foresee future economic conditions that might make refinancing difficult.

For example, the rate of home price appreciation and home equity play a very important role in a borrower's ability to refinance at a future date. Many borrowers are too optimistic about the rate of home price appreciation. Additionally, many 3/27 mortgages carry prepayment penalties, which make refinancing very costly.

80-10-10 Mortgage

A mortgage transaction in which a first and second mortgage are simultaneously originated. The first position lien has an 80% loan-to-value ratio, the second position lien has a 10% loan-to-value ratio and the borrower makes a 10% down payment. 80-10-10 mortgage transactions are piggy-back mortgage transactions, and are frequently used by borrowers to avoid paying private mortgage insurance.

The economics of using a second lien rather than paying private mortgage insurance are driven by home price appreciation. If a borrower expects the value of the home to increase quickly, it might be more economical to pay private mortgage insurance for a period of time until the loan-to-value ratio for a first mortgage falls below the minimum required. At this point, the private mortgage insurance can be eliminated, eliminating the need for a second mortgage in a piggy-back transaction.

Hybrid Adjustable-Rate Mortgage - 5-1 Hybrid ARM / "five-year fixed-period ARM"

An adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) with an initial five-year fixed-interest rate. After this initial five-year period, the interest rate begins to adjust on an annual basis according to an index plus a margin (or, the fully indexed interest rate). The speed and the extent to which the fully indexed interest rate can adjust are usually limited by an interest rate cap structure. There are several different indexes that the fully indexed interest rate might be tied to. While the index is variable, the margin is fixed for the life of the loan.

There is little probability that the fully indexed interest rate might be lower than the initial fixed interest rate on a 5-1 ARM. The more likely scenario is that the fully interest rate will be higher, leading to an increase in the monthly payment amount beginning in year six.

Depending on the slope of the yield curve, a 5-1 ARM can have an interest rate advantage over a 30-year fixed-rate mortgage. Most borrowers who choose a 5-1 ARM intend to refinance or move before the expiration of the fixed interest rate period. There is some risk in this scenario, because personal finances or general market conditions might make moving or refinancing difficult, or even impossible, five years in the future.

Hybrid Adjustable-Rate Mortgage - 5-6 Hybrid ARM

An adjustable-rate mortgage with an initial five year fixed interest rate after which the interest rate begins to adjust every six months according to an index plus a margin (or, the fully indexed interest rate). The index is variable while the margin is fixed for the life of the loan. 5-6 ARMs are usually tied to the six-month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) index.

When shopping for an ARM, the index, the margin and the interest rate cap structure should not be overlooked. In a rising interest rate environment, the longer the time period between interest rate reset dates, the more beneficial it will be for the borrower. So, in this case, a 5-1 ARM would be better than a 5-6 ARM. The opposite would be true in a falling interest rate environment.

Additionally, different indexes behave differently in different interest rate environments. Those with a built-in lag effect, such as the Moving Treasury Average (MTA) Index are more beneficial in a rising interest rate environment than short-term interest rate indexes such as the one-month LIBOR. The interest rate cap structure determines how quickly and to what extent the interest rate can adjust over the life of the mortgage. Different cap structures might be available for certain types of ARMs. Finally, the margin is fixed for the life of the loan, but it can frequently be negotiated with the lender before signing mortgage documents.

A type of adjustable-rate mortgage that has a two-year fixed interest rate period after which the interest rate on the mortgage begins to float based on an index plus a margin. The index plus the margin in known as the fully indexed interest rate. Often, a 2/28 ARM is designed as a short-term financing vehicle that provides borrowers with time to repair their credit before they refinance into a mortgage with more favorable terms.

In many cases, 2/28-mortgage borrowers fail to recognize the risks associated with such a mortgage. They often don't recognize how much their monthly payments will increase when the interest rate starts to adjust at a higher rate. It is important to note that there is usually a high probability that the fully indexed interest rate will be substantially higher than the initial two-year fixed interest rate. Once this number adjusts, the borrower's payments are likely to increase as well.

Adjustable-Rate Mortgage - 3/27 ARM

A type of adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) frequently offered to subprime borrowers. These mortgages are designed as short-term financing vehicles that give borrowers time to repair their credit until they are able to refinance into a mortgage with more favorable terms.

3/27 mortgages have a three-year fixed-interest-rate period after which the interest rate begins to float based on an index plus a margin (known as the fully indexed interest rate). There is a high probability that the fully indexed interest rate will be substantially higher than the initial three-year fixed interest rate; therefore, to avoid payment shock, the intent of 3/27 mortgage borrowers is to be able to refinance the mortgage before the interest rate begins to adjust.

A common mistake many 3/27 mortgage borrowers make is a failure to recognize the risks associated with such a mortgage. Many times they do not recognize how much their monthly payments may increase if the interest rate changes. Even if they plan on refinancing before the interest rate starts to move, they fail to foresee future economic conditions that might make refinancing difficult.

For example, the rate of home price appreciation and home equity play a very important role in a borrower's ability to refinance at a future date. Many borrowers are too optimistic about the rate of home price appreciation. Additionally, many 3/27 mortgages carry prepayment penalties, which make refinancing very costly.

80-10-10 Mortgage

A mortgage transaction in which a first and second mortgage are simultaneously originated. The first position lien has an 80% loan-to-value ratio, the second position lien has a 10% loan-to-value ratio and the borrower makes a 10% down payment. 80-10-10 mortgage transactions are piggy-back mortgage transactions, and are frequently used by borrowers to avoid paying private mortgage insurance.

The economics of using a second lien rather than paying private mortgage insurance are driven by home price appreciation. If a borrower expects the value of the home to increase quickly, it might be more economical to pay private mortgage insurance for a period of time until the loan-to-value ratio for a first mortgage falls below the minimum required. At this point, the private mortgage insurance can be eliminated, eliminating the need for a second mortgage in a piggy-back transaction.

Hybrid Adjustable-Rate Mortgage - 5-1 Hybrid ARM / "five-year fixed-period ARM"

An adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) with an initial five-year fixed-interest rate. After this initial five-year period, the interest rate begins to adjust on an annual basis according to an index plus a margin (or, the fully indexed interest rate). The speed and the extent to which the fully indexed interest rate can adjust are usually limited by an interest rate cap structure. There are several different indexes that the fully indexed interest rate might be tied to. While the index is variable, the margin is fixed for the life of the loan.

There is little probability that the fully indexed interest rate might be lower than the initial fixed interest rate on a 5-1 ARM. The more likely scenario is that the fully interest rate will be higher, leading to an increase in the monthly payment amount beginning in year six.

Depending on the slope of the yield curve, a 5-1 ARM can have an interest rate advantage over a 30-year fixed-rate mortgage. Most borrowers who choose a 5-1 ARM intend to refinance or move before the expiration of the fixed interest rate period. There is some risk in this scenario, because personal finances or general market conditions might make moving or refinancing difficult, or even impossible, five years in the future.

Hybrid Adjustable-Rate Mortgage - 5-6 Hybrid ARM

An adjustable-rate mortgage with an initial five year fixed interest rate after which the interest rate begins to adjust every six months according to an index plus a margin (or, the fully indexed interest rate). The index is variable while the margin is fixed for the life of the loan. 5-6 ARMs are usually tied to the six-month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) index.

When shopping for an ARM, the index, the margin and the interest rate cap structure should not be overlooked. In a rising interest rate environment, the longer the time period between interest rate reset dates, the more beneficial it will be for the borrower. So, in this case, a 5-1 ARM would be better than a 5-6 ARM. The opposite would be true in a falling interest rate environment.

Additionally, different indexes behave differently in different interest rate environments. Those with a built-in lag effect, such as the Moving Treasury Average (MTA) Index are more beneficial in a rising interest rate environment than short-term interest rate indexes such as the one-month LIBOR. The interest rate cap structure determines how quickly and to what extent the interest rate can adjust over the life of the mortgage. Different cap structures might be available for certain types of ARMs. Finally, the margin is fixed for the life of the loan, but it can frequently be negotiated with the lender before signing mortgage documents.

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